Kathy Kolbe is very proud of her father's accomplishments in developing cognitive testing in the 1930s and 40s. Eldon Wonderlic, who developed the Wonderlic test given to every football player attending the annual NFL Scouting Combine, has had his cognitive test used for far longer than other tests developed around that time.

But Kolbe says that's the problem with the test itself: Time and the cognitive testing field have made huge strides in the meantime. The Wonderlic, as a result, has become outdated, surpassed by much better cognitive testing tools. Innovative as it was for its time, it shouldn't be used today.

The NFL, though, continues to stick by the test it has deployed since the 1970s, even as evidence mounts that there's no correlation between high scores and on-field success. As Kolbe explains to CBS Sports, she developed her own test -- the Kolbe Index -- as an update to past cognitive testing tools used, and to better identify potential strengths in prospective employees -- in the NFL's case, football players.

Kolbe said that the biggest problem with her father's test is that there are inherent socioeconomic biases -- the test essentially measures how well you have been educated, not your intelligence or potential. That, and other factors, are why it has produced uneven results among NFL players.

Her own test, meanwhile, measures instinct and impulse -- two traits football players rely on. The question format is not right-or-wrong, and it minimizes biases of gender, age and race. She brought the test to the NFL hoping they would replace her father's Wonderlic with the updated Kolbe Index.

The response was not what she had hoped for.

"They told me they'd love for me to be a speaker at their Wives' Association meeting," Kolbe tells CBS Sports. "One of the most sexist things I've ever been told."

Instead, the Wonderlic continues to pass judgment without any pretense of accuracy. Dan Marino and Terry Bradshaw both scored terribly on the Wonderlic with reported scores of 15. Both are in the Pro Football Hall of Fame now. Marino ended his career as the all-time NFL passing yards leader. Bradshaw has four Super Bowl rings.

Meanwhile, as CBS Sports points out, players earning the 10 best Wonderlic scores ever -- among scores reported to the public, anyway -- have compiled a whopping one Pro Bowl appearance in all of their careers.

Quarterback Blaine Gabbert recorded one of the 10-best known scores ever. He was drafted by the Jaguars and flamed out terribly.

The Kolbe Index might have been a better predictor of success in all of those cases. But the NFL didn't want to know.

"My dad and my brother, because they're men, their business can be used with the players, but mine, which is more appropriate and useful, could only be used with the wives," Kolbe says. "They were really interested, but I was a woman."

Kolbe's tool hasn't been abandoned entirely -- sports organizations are embracing it, with the NBA's Phoenix Suns among those adopters. The test's ability to bring personality into the equation seems like it could help mitigate some of the chemistry problems and off-field disruptions that certain players seem more likely to cause, helping teams use past behavior and current dispositions to better predict the risk of future problems.

So far, though, the NFL has kept the door closed. But just because they continue to use the Wonderlic doesn't mean the results will get any more reliable.

Ross Rebagliati was famous first for snowboarding. But shortly after winning the first snowboarding gold medal at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, he became famous for something else: Being the first Olympic pothead.

Rebagliati tested positive for pot shortly after winning his medal, and the test results led the IOC to take back his medal. The snowboarder became infamous -- and today he still uses that reputation as one of Canada's leading marijuana activists.

In a profile from the National Post, Rebagliati explains that he's still a frequent consumer of cannabis. At one point, he had had the equivalent of seven joints by 3:30 in the afternoon. But his marijuana use has nothing to do with being stoned -- he believes there are tangible benefits to marijuana, so much so that it qualifies as a performance-enhancing drug.

"For me, whether you are skiing, or snowboarding, or riding a road bike, or working out at the gym, (marijuana use) puts you in the moment," Rebagliati says. "You get in a zone where you can give it a 110 percent."

Rebagliati may sound like your average pothead, but among athletes he's far from alone. Many athletes in other sports, including the NFL and ultramarathoning, say marijuana brings tangible benefits that can include lessened fatigue and reduced physical pain -- even as an alternative to highly addictive painkillers.

The research thus far is limited, but the body of anecdotal endorsements from athletes do give the notion some credibility. Scientists are eager to study marijuana in greater depth to determine if these benefits are legitimate or merely perceived.

Rebagliati, by the way, ended up getting his gold medal back -- he challenged the ruling against him on the grounds that marijuana wasn't on the list of banned substances. He won, and it was later added to the list.

Whether marijuana qualifies as performance-enhancing may be another matter altogether. But Rebagliati sees benefits in his own daily life, and he's working to make that more accessible to the public.

As Marcus Mariota talks about his preparation for the NFL, he underscores an important concept of working out: It's not just about putting time in the gym. It's about having a purpose so that you make the most of your time in the gym.

"I do it for my family, where I come from and my friends," Mariota says. "And if I can represent that every single day whether it's training, watching film, doing all the little things, it's going to allow me to be motivated and do the best I can for them."

Mariota, who won the Heisman Trophy last season as Oregon quarterback, also emphasizes the pride in his Hawaiian heritage and how its culture is based on respect for family and having an appreciation for what you have.

With Mariota's preparation in advance of the NFL draft combined with Oregon's status as a flagship Nike school, he was an obvious choice to be featured in Nike Training's new documentary series. The opening episode featured Rory McIlroy shortly before the Masters.

A theme of the series is understanding how athletes continue to challenge themselves, and Mariota mentions wanting to turn weaknesses into strengths. Having a mindset that is receptive to constructive criticism is often a huge part of the battle.

The average student-athlete in the Pac-12 Conference spends about 50 hours a week on sports-related activities -- and the the time commitment is such a strain that it inhibits those students' academic success, according to a new study.

According to a report obtained exclusively by CBS Sports, those students suffer from high amounts of stress and physical exhaustion that impedes their ability to study effectively.

The NCAA limits how much time students can spend regarding their official obligations to a sport with the set limit of 20 hours. But conference schools averaged 21 hours of time per student. They spend another 30 hours per week involved in voluntary workouts, travel time for competitions, medical treatments and other activities.

The Pac-12 commissioned the study as a way to evaluate the current student-athlete model and to ultimately introduce the most effective reforms. Commissioner Larry Scott has acknowledged that student-athletes face unfair challenges in managing their academic and athletic workloads.

The revelations come even as the NCAA works toward better financial compensation for student-athletes. Yet the report underscores a larger problem that increased compensation won't fix: The compromise of academics in favor of athletic performance.

Even if student-athletes do receive compensation for their efforts, academic institutions face an ethical dilemma if those efforts compromise their primary role as students seeking an education.

It's unclear how the Pac-12 will use the report to recommend or implement changes, but the numbers offer critical insight into just how much is demanded of student-athletes -- and how much ground the NCAA has to make up.

Texas Tech football players are familiar with Floyd Mayweather's body of work. Coach Kliff Kingsbury is a fan of the boxer and says he uses tape of Mayweather to serve as an example of the type of work ethic his players should be putting into their respective games. Kingsbury was on-site at Mayweather's training session along with several other notable figures, and he took time to speculate where Mayweather is best-suited to thrive on the football field.

Go to Wimbledon, and the crowd follows a very strict decorum: Quiet during service, gentle clapping after a point is scored.

Go watch tennis in the Big 12 Conference, and you can forget about all that decorum. The Big 12 wants its tennis fans to be loud, boisterous -- even downright heckling the players.

The louder, the better. According to a feature in The Wall Street Journal, it's all a part of the Big 12's push to keep tennis relevant among students and fans.

Surprising as it might seem, the changes in rules do have some appeal to certain fans. One student interviewed by the WSJ said that the difference between heckling at a tennis match vs. a football game is that at tennis matches, he feels he has a bigger role.

"It's better than football because they can actually hear me when I talk to them," Burchfield told the WSJ.

More than 600 tennis programs across the country have been dropped over the past 40 years, and many colleges are getting more aggressive about how they try to appeal to students. Free food, giveaways and even changing the game's rules to shorten matches have all made a noticeable difference.

But the freedom to heckle seems to be making a big splash.

It's also enabled tennis teams to draw a more consistent following, even to the point that they've organized cheering sections. While the NCAA as a whole hasn't dispensed of the traditional rules, Big 12 tennis is seeing enough success that it may spur on greater changes soon.

Either way, it's clear that the rule changes are making the sport more accessible -- and popular. Said one student: "Honestly, we wouldn't be here otherwise."

Sure, you know the iconic shots: Jordan holding his hand in the air as the ball drops through the hoop for his sixth championship ring. Kobe leaning back and fading as he unleashes jumpers that defy physics. The end result is beautiful, but in many cases it's smart footwork that sets up those amazing shots.

A new video compiles memorable shots from Michael Jordan, Kobe Bryant, Hakeem Olajuwon and others over the years, with an emphasis on innovative and downright mind-boggling footwork.

With the NBA playoffs set to commence over the weekend, now is as good a time as any to sharpen your eye on the finer points of basketball.

Clutch shooting may decide games, but keep an eye on how LeBron James, Steph Curry and other stars use subtle, complex footwork to create windows of opportunity.

The world is a really different place when viewed from Nick Young's perspective. For example, you might be tempted to assume that the Los Angeles Lakers shooting guard's poor shooting season -- he's averaging just 13.4 points and shooting a career-low 36 percent from the field -- could be the product of playing on a bad team, drawing tougher matchups, and struggling without the help of good teammates.

A tempting theory, yes. But dead wrong. Nick Young knows what's up.




Young's season was cut short earlier this spring when a small fracture was discovered in his left knee. The injury was slow to heal, and two weeks ago the organization decided to shut him down for the year and give him time to recuperate. The Lakers' record is currently in the bottom five of the league, and winning games at this point only jeopardizes their shot at a better draft pick.

Take it from the man who nicknamed himself Swaggy P. The man who, according to his own eyewitness account, was nearly killed by a murderous dolphin while on vacation with girlfriend Iggy Azalea. The man who, just four months ago, predicted that he would score 46,000 career points, obliterating the current career NBA scoring record by almost 8,000.

It's definitely the rim's fault.

As if the rest of the world hadn't already played the word association game in their head, Jordan Spieth confirmed what some already would have guessed: His parents named him after Michael Jordan.

It's easy to hear the name "Jordan" and immediately recall the greatest basketball player in history, and it's almost as easy to project an air of greatness onto a stud athlete that shares the name. After all, the guy was going to get MJ references no matter if he was named after an almond or a country in the Middle East.


But Spieth, in the wake of his win at The Masters, is drawing comparisons with sports greats from past generations. Given that, it's all too perfect that he has a fun connection to one of them.


Maybe if he were a few years older, his parents would have named him Tiger.

Spieth revealed the story behind his name while on CBS This Morning. He talks about his first name at the 4:55 mark, but the full interview is available here:

By leading The Masters from start to finish -- and putting himself on record-setting pace before the weekend -- Jordan Spieth did more than run away with his first win at Augusta. He flooded television broadcasts with the logo of his main sponsor, Under Armour.

That maximized exposure represents millions of dollars in value for both Spieth and Under Armour.

According to Adam Grossman, founder and president of the sports media firm Block Six Analytics, Under Armour -- which is working to push its golf brand into the competitive space currently dominated by Nike -- received roughly $6.2 million in value based on Spieth's visibility during the tournament.

"Overall media impressions were the key to the bump," Grossman tells ThePostGame. "Essentially, the leaders of golf tournaments get a significant amount of the television and media coverage. If you compare Spieth's time on the screen during the daily coverage versus a 30-second commercial, then the value is significant."

In that sense, Spieth's gains in value were much greater than if he'd won The Masters with a quick comeback in the last round. Spieth was the tournament's major storyline throughout the event, so much that it drowned out others that had been played up entering the weekend -- such as Tiger Woods' quietly solid return to competitive play.

Although the figure hasn't been made public, Grossman estimates that Under Armour pays Spieth $3.6 million to $4 million annually. That means Under Armour is already ahead for the year on its investment in Spieth, based on one spectacular weekend at the Masters.

According to Adam Peake, Under Armour's EVP of Marketing, Spieth's performance transcended the attention he has drawn to its golf line.

"We look at it even broader," Peake says. "It's the impact that [his victory] has on our brand overall."

Spieth's coming-out party at The Masters -- at 21 years old, he's drawing no shortage of comparisons to Tiger Woods and Rory McIlroy -- is yet another success story Under Armour can add to its collection in 2015. From Tom Brady's strong performance in Super Bowl XLIX to Stephen Curry's hard push for the NBA MVP award to a deal with Muhammad Ali, Under Armour has hit a hot streak with its endorsements that is paying dividends the company never could have predicted.

Peake says that those individual accomplishments are an important component of building sport-specific brand, golf or otherwise.

"I think it's critical to have those big names to build the authenticity of the brand," Peake says. "But instead of having those names, I think the key word is having the right names. The attitude [Spieth] brings, the personality, the humility -- that's what makes a difference."

Qualities such as those outlined by Peake are part of the reason Under Armour ripped up its original sponsorship contract (signed in 2013) with Spieth in January, rewarding him with a new, 10-year deal. Given the way he has exploded this year, the investment couldn't look any better.

Meanwhile, Under Armour is working at a frenzied pace to seize the moment -- "We don’t sit around and revel in the wins," Peake says -- and continue to build off Speith's success.

The end of The Masters is far from the end of Spieth's dividends. He'll be a popular interview all week, with a date to appear on The Late Show with David Letterman on Monday night. In future TV coverage of this season's golf tournaments, Spieth is sure to attract more attention as a golfer who is always a threat when in play.

"This organic exposure in terms of highlight packages, feature stories and digital/social media exposure will continue beyond The Masters as well given the historic nature of his performance," says Grossman, who is also author of The Sports Strategist. "In terms of quality of impressions, Jordan Spieth significantly enhanced Under Armour's brand awareness and brand perception."

Peake shrugs off the numbers -- the millions of dollars in value gained, the extra Under Armour product sales and the potential to push these numbers even higher through 2015. Whether wanting to push a different narrative or simply finding those projections too restrictive, the executive believes that Spieth's landmark achievement is the impetus for long-term growth.

"You know, when I think of the impact of what has happened, the emotional passion and intensity, quite frankly I think it is very hard to put a value on that," Peake says. "It's about that word 'momentum.' Momentum creates itself, and it becomes contagious at some level. That’s clearly how we feel right now."

Syndicate content